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Classification and standard of respirator _ protec (15th Feb 23 at 7:58am UTC)
Original title: Classification and standard of masks Classification of masks According to the shape of the mask, it can be divided into three types: flat, folding and cup-shaped. The flat mask is easy to carry, but the tightness is poor; the folding mask is easy to carry; the cup-shaped breathing space is large, but it is not convenient to carry. Classified according to the wearing style: It is suitable for workshop workers who wear it for a long time, and it is troublesome to wear it. Ear wearing type: easy to wear, suitable for frequent wearing and taking off. Neck wearing type: use S hook and some soft material connectors to connect the ear belt and convert it into a neck belt type, which is suitable for long-term wearing and more convenient for workshop workers wearing safety helmets or protective suit. Gauze masks are classified according to the materials used: some workshops still use gauze masks, but they follow the GB19084-2003 standard with low requirements, which does not meet the GB2626-2019 standard, and can only protect against large particles of dust. Non-woven masks: Most of the disposable protective masks are non-woven masks, which are mainly based on physical filtration supplemented by electrostatic adsorption. Cloth mask: Cloth mask only has the effect of keeping warm without the effect of filtering very small particles such as PM. Paper mask: It is suitable for food, beauty and other industries. It has the characteristics of good air permeability, convenient and comfortable use. The paper used follows the GB/T22927-2008 standard. Masks made of other materials, such as new biological protective filter materials. Classified by the scope of application of medical masks: domestic divided into three categories, medical ordinary masks, surgical mask, medical protective masks. Particulate matter protective mask: industrial use conforms to GB2626-2019 standard, special labor protection articles safety mark certification (LA certification), and changed from compulsory certification to voluntary certification in 2015. If it is used to prevent haze, it is necessary to use a plug-in type, which shall comply with the GB/T32610-2016 standard. Civil use conforms to GB/T32610-2016 standard. Thermal cloth mask: thermal mask, suitable for winter wear, only need to meet the relevant standards of fabrics. Other special industries: such as chemical industry. Different standards are formulated according to different countries and industries with different protection levels, and different particle filtration efficiencies are divided into different protection levels, which will be introduced in detail in the standard part. Other respirators can be divided into filter type and isolation type. Filter type can be divided into air supply filter type and self-priming filter type. The latter can be divided as half mask and full mask. Isolation type can be classified as air supply type and portable type, which include positive pressure type and negative pressure type respectively. Technical standards for masks China GB2626-2019 The first edition of the standard was issued in 1981 (GB2626-1981), which was updated three times in 1992, 2006 and 2019 respectively. The 2019 edition was changed to "respiratory protection self-priming filter particulate respirator" without the word "supplies". The GB2626-2019 edition was issued on December 31, 2019 and implemented on July 1, 2020. The standard specifies the classification and marking, technical requirements, testing methods and identification of self-priming filter particulate respirators. The standard was proposed by the State Administration of Work Safety and is under the jurisdiction of the National Technical Committee for Standardization of Personal Protective Equipment (SAC/TC112). Compared with the 2006 edition, on the basis of following the basic principles of scientificity, standardization, coordination and timeliness, according to the trend of scientific progress and product development, the respiratory resistance index is adjusted without reducing the protective ability, the detection method is improved,Medical Quickly Delivery Antivirus Coverall, the lower vision of the half-mask is optimized, and the comfort of the product is improved. See Figure 6 for the scope of application. The standard filter elements are divided into two categories (KN and KP) according to the filtering performance. The KN category is only applicable to the filtration of non-oily particles, including KN90 (≥ 90%), KN95 (≥ 95%) and KN100 (≥ 99.97%). KP is suitable for filtering oily and non-oily particles, including KP90 (≥ 90%), KP95 (≥ 95%) and KP100 (≥ 99.97%). The number after KN and KP refers to the filtration efficiency level, and the higher the number, the better the filtration effect.
KN respirators are not tested for synthetic blood penetration and surface moisture resistance, so they can be used to block viruses for a short time, but they should not be used to contact patients who may spray or contact patients for a long time. Expand the full text GB/T32610-2016 The technical specification for daily protective masks is a standard for civil masks, which is proposed by China Textile Industry Federation and under the jurisdiction of the National Textile Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC209). See Figure 6 for the scope of application. According to the filtration efficiency, it is divided into Grade I, Grade II and Grade III,Against Bacteria Breathable KN95 Face Mask, and the corresponding filtration efficiency is ≥ 99%, ≥ 95% and ≥ 90% for saline medium and ≥ 99%, ≥ 95% and ≥ 80% for oily medium. The protective effect of masks is divided into A, B, C and D grades from high to low. The environmental air quality suitable for each grade of masks is serious pollution, serious and below pollution, severe and below pollution, moderate and below pollution. All levels of masks should be able to reduce the concentration of inhaled particulate matter (PM) to ≤ 75 μg/m (air quality index category good and above) in the corresponding air pollution environment. When the protective effect of the mask is Grade A, the filtration efficiency shall reach Grade II and above; when the protective effect of the mask is Grade B, C and D, the filtration efficiency shall reach Grade III and above. YY/T0969-2013 This standard is an industry standard for disposable medical masks, which was issued on October 21, 2013 and implemented on October 1, 2014. Ordinary medical masks meet this standard, are suitable for general protection of medical staff, and are only used in general medical environment (see Figure 6). There are many names of ordinary medical masks, including medical nursing and disposable medical masks. Medical masks without the words "protection" and "surgery" in their names are all ordinary medical masks. The core indicators of this level of mask include bacterial filtration efficiency and ventilation resistance, which are not required to have a barrier effect on blood, nor are there any sealing requirements, as shown in Figure 3. YY0469-2011 Medical surgical mask (YY0469-2011) is the industry standard of medical surgical mask, which was issued on December 31, 2011 and implemented on June 1, 2013. The first edition of the surgical mask industry standard (YY0469-2004) has been replaced by the 2011 edition. It is applicable to the disposable mask worn in the invasive operation of clinical medical staff (see Figure 6). It is a medical mask commonly used in the operating room and other environments with the risk of body fluid and blood splashing. The outer package must be clearly marked as surgical mask. The core indicators of this type of mask include bacterial filtration efficiency, particle filtration efficiency, synthetic blood penetration resistance and ventilation resistance (see Table 3). There is no strict requirement for facial fit like the standard of medical protective mask. The filtration efficiency for bacteria is ≥ 95%, and the filtration efficiency for particles is limited (≥ 30%). GB19083-2010 GB 19083-2010 Technical Requirements for Protective Masks for Medical Use was issued on September 2, 2010 and implemented on August 1, KN95 Face Mask ,KN95 Mask with Fast Shipping, 2011. The first edition was GB19083-2003, which was formulated under the situation of fighting against SARS in the whole country. It was issued and implemented on April 29, 2003. There were no protective masks for medical use before SARS. This standard is applicable to the medical working environment, filtering particles in the air, blocking droplets, blood, body fluids, secretions, including various infectious viruses (see Figure 6). The core indicators of this type of mask include particle filtration efficiency, synthetic blood penetration resistance, ventilation resistance, surface moisture resistance, good fit, and total fit factor (see Table 3). According to the filtration efficiency of non-oily particles, medical protective masks were divided into grade 1 (≥ 95%), grade 2 (≥ 99%) and grade 3 (≥ 99.97%). Medical protective masks require that the filtering efficiency of the mask to non-oily particles is ≥ 95%, which meets the N95 or FFP2 or above grade. The protective ability of medical masks in China is medical protective masks, surgical mask and ordinary medical masks from high to low.
Main Standards and Applicable Scope of Masks in China Cited from Chinese Journal of Infection Control America The NIOSH standard in the United States classifies the filter material and filtration efficiency of masks, which is highly recognized all over the world. According to the filter material of the middle layer of the mask, it can be divided into three types: N, R and P series, and each type can be divided into three levels according to the filtering efficiency (see Table 4). N is used to protect non-oily suspended particles. Usually, non-oily particles refer to coal dust, cement dust, acid mist, microorganisms, etc. Droplets produced by speaking or coughing are not oily. In the current haze pollution, suspended particles are mostly non-oily. Oily particulate matter refers to oil smoke, oil mist, asphalt smoke, etc. For example, the oil smoke produced by cooking is oily particulate matter. R and P are used to protect non-oily and oily suspended particles. Compared with R series, P series can be used for a relatively long time. The specific use time depends on the label of different manufacturers. N95 mask is a type of mask with a filtering efficiency of ≥ 95% in the N series. When the tightness of the wearer's face is tested to ensure that air can pass through the mask under the condition of close contact with the edge of the face, the N95 certification number will be issued only if it meets this test. During the special period of preventing "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)", WHO temporarily recommends medical staff to use the N95 mask certified by NIOSH. N95 mask is not equal to medical protective masks, which stipulate that the filtering effect of masks should meet the requirements of N95, and have the ability of surface moisture resistance and blood barrier. ASTM F2100 is a medical standard that classifies masks into three levels: low protection (Level 1), medium protection (Level 2), and high protection (Level 3). The higher the level, the better the protection performance. Level 1 and Level 2 masks are commonly referred to as procedure masks; Level 3 masks can be used in the operating room and are also referred to as surgical masks. When the chance of exposure to viruses is particularly high, a higher level of protection should be selected. ASTM certification requires the mask to meet the relevant standards in bacterial filtration efficiency, particle filtration efficiency, synthetic blood penetration resistance and pressure difference, as shown in Table 3. Level 1 can block 95% of bacterial particles, which is enough to protect the general community users even if it only meets the low protection standard; Level 2 and Level 3 (medium to high protection standards) require masks to block at least 98% of bacteria and particles, while the pressure difference is only less than 49.0 Pa/cm. Lower protection standards are more relaxed because it is more difficult to achieve better protection while maintaining breathability. The main difference between the medium and high protection standards is that the high protection (Level 3) standard requires a higher ability to block liquids. Medical N95 mask need to meet not only the FDA Surgical Masks-Premarket Notification Submissions Guidance forIndustry and FDA Staff standards, At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of NIOSH for N95 mask, the penetration and surface moisture resistance of synthetic blood were tested, while the FDA standard basically followed the ASTM F2100 standard. Europe The European Union's standards for Conformite Europeenne (CE) certification of masks include BSEN140, BSEN14387, BSEN143, BSEN 149 and BSEN 136, among which BSEN 149 is mostly used as a filter half-mask that can protect against particles. According to the particle penetration rate tested, it is divided into three grades: P1 (FFP1), P2 (FFP2) and P3 (FFP3). The low filtration effect of FFP1 is ≥ 80%, that of FFP2 is ≥ 94%, and that of FFP3 is ≥ 97%. The filtration efficiency of FFP2 mask is very close to that of the medical protective mask, KN95 mask and N95 mask mentioned above.
Medical face masks must follow the BSEN14683 standard (Medical face masks-Requirement sand test methods), which can be divided into three levels: low standard Type I, then Type II and Type II R. See Table 3. The previous version was BSEN14683: 2014, which has been replaced by the new version BSEN14683: 2019. One of the main changes in the 2019 edition is the pressure difference. The pressure difference of Type I, Type II and Type II R increased from 29.4, 29.4 and 49.0 Pa/cm in the 2014 edition to 40, 40 and 60 Pa/cm. Australia AS/NZS 1716:2012 is the Australian and New Zealand standard for respiratory protective devices, which specifies the procedures and materials that must be used in the manufacture of particle masks, as well as the test and performance results that must be determined to ensure their safe use. The standard is divided into three categories, P1: low filtration effect ≥ 80%; P2: low filtration effect ≥ 94%; P3: low filtration efficiency ≥ 99%. Australia's medical mask standard is AS4381: 2015, which is divided into Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 according to the core indicators, as shown in Figure 3. Chart 3: Core indicators of medical masks in China, the United States, Europe and Australia Cited from Chinese Journal of Infection Control Figure 4: Classification of Particulate Matter Protective Masks in NIOSH Standard Cited from Chinese Journal of Infection Control Japan Japanese JIST8151: 2018 standard is the standard for respiratory protection devices, and is also the verification standard of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan. The common disposable salt particle filtration specifications are as follows: DS1: low filtration effect ≥ 80%; DS2: low filtration effect ≥ 99%; DS3: low filter effect ≥ 99.9%. The grade of the mask is shown in Figure 7. Figure 4: Classification of mask grades in Japan Cited from Chinese Journal of Infection Control Korea The Korean mask standard KF (Korean filter) series is issued by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea. MFDS) issued the mainstream mask standard in Korea (Regulations on the Approval, Notification, and Evaluation of Quasi-Drugs). KF series is divided into KF80, KF94 and KF99. KF80: ≥ 80% (saline media only); KF94: ≥ 94% (oily and saline media); KF99: ≥ 99% (oily and saline media). Disclaimer: We respect the original, the main purpose is to share information. All texts, pictures and videos are reproduced from the network, and the copyright is owned by the original author. If there is any infringement of your rights and interests, please inform us in time. E: jack@everbase.cn,Medical Full Body Coverall, we will delete it within 24 hours. We are neutral to the contents and opinions stated in the article, and do not provide any express or implied guarantee for its accuracy, reliability or completeness. For the reader's information only. Return to Sohu to see more Responsible Editor:. zjyuan-group.com
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